Turntable Set up

Turntable Set up is something many consider to be a black art.



Turntable Set up
The RP8 in its plinth.

Not everyone is lucky enough to own a high-end turntable like the Rega RP8 pictured above but the principles of set up are the same for most turntables. Here is a guide to things you can do to maintain your record player and get the best from it.

All turntables

The most common problems with all record players not sounding at their best are as follows;

  • Badly worn stylus
  • Badly aligned cartridge
  • Incorrect tracking weight (downforce)
  • Incorrect VTA
  • No lubrication in the bearing
  • Worn belt

Stylus wear
Getting your stylus checked is something you should do every now and again. If the diamond is in bad shape you will find that the sound quality will worsen considerably. Even worse news is that when a stylus is damaged it will actually gauge and scrape the walls of your records and damage them irreparably.

Turntable set up


You can see above that the worn stylus is riding the groove in the wrong position to extract the most information. But as the profile of the diamond worsens it ends up looking something like Mnt Everest and can seriously chew up your precious vinyl.

A stylus should last 4-5 years with regular use. By regular I mean a few hours every day. If you listen a great deal more then you should replace it more often and if in doubt bring your stylus in and we can examine it and report on how it is holding up.

Bear in mind that styli don’t break but instead they deteriorate. This means you might have been listening to a badly worn stylus damaging your vinyl for a long time without realising.

Alignment problems

Turntable Set up

A badly aligned cartridge is the same thing. If you look at the head-shell of a tone-arm there are slots. These allow the cartridge to be moved backwards and forwards in order for the stylus to be presented to the groove with precisely the right geometry. Accuracy is critical to performance. A protractor or gauge is used to get it right and that device may be particular for the tone-arm on your deck. A Rega one for example is very different from that used by Linn. If you did not get the cartridge fitted by a retailer or the manufacturer it is well worth checking this. If you just fitted it yourself and hoped for the best it is critical you do. If you don’t have the gauge we’d be happy to do it for you.

A badly aligned cartridge will present the stylus to the groove at the incorrect angle. This will damage the groove and sound worse. Typically this is sibilance (that horrid “ssssss” sort of sound), distortion or mistracking (when the stylus jumps or leaves the groove – in the worse case scenario).

Incorrect tracking
This is another common problem. Your cartridge will have a recommended tracking weight. Typically this is around 2 grams. If it is under the stylus will simple bounce around in the groove and the sound quality will be worsened at best and the stylus become damaged at worst. If the down-force is too high the sylus will wear very quickly and the sound will be heavy-laden and lack life or sparkle.

This short video explains how to do it.


Incorrect VTA

Vertical tracking angle is easy to check. Put the stylus in the groove of a record. Squat down until you are parallel to the record player and check that the tone-arm is approximately parallel to the record. If it is high OR low at the back then this needs to be adjusted. Don’t be concerned about a very small amount but anything great is likely to have an impact on both performance and stylus wear. ¬†Adjusting this is one job I would recommend leaving to a specialist. It is normally done by loosening an allen key socket and then sliding the pillar of the arm up or down before re-tightening. The problem is over-tightening can damage the bearings significantly.

No lubricant in the bearing
Bearings need lubrication and they not only run dry but the oil in them is often contaminated with fluff and dust. Remove the inner platter from the bearing sleeve and ensure there is enough oil. If the bearing and spindle are dry then you need to add four or five drops of a good machine oil. Sewing machine oil is ideal. NB: if you use a high-end turntable it is worth speaking to your dealer before doing this as some turntables require a very specific oil and will normally supply it at a small cost.

If the bearing looks a little clogged up mop it out with some cotton buds or an old clean cloth screwed into a thin spiral. Take your time and remove the old stuff and then add some fine machine oil. Don’t add too much as it will simply squirt out when you fit the inner platter back in.


Belts wear and stretch. When they do the turntable will run slow and may take longer to get up to speed. Turntables sound dreadful when they are running slow. Fit a new belt from the correct manufacturer and you will be pleased that things simply sound “more right”. Expect to fit a new belt every 5 years or so and more often if the turntable sees a great deal of use.

Specialist turntables

These can require more care than the end-user can provide. The LINN LP12 is an example of this. It has a floating suspension and this requires some maintenance. Maintenance requires a special jig that enables the turntable to be worked on safely. In these instances we would suggest that the turntable is services by a specialist like ourselves.

We do a routine service on most turntables for £15.

Other advice

  • Look after your records as cleaning your vinyl will preserve the life of your stylus
  • Use inner sleeves to protect your records
  • Site the turntable away from vibration. A light support is always best than a heavy one. Feel if there is any vibration on the surface that the record player is sat on – this is extremely important if your turntable does not have a suspension – vibration will be transferred straight into your amplifier. If there is any vibration take measures to reduce it. Wall shelves are of course ideal because they are rigid and de-couple the turntable from the room.
  • Avoid “stacking” your turntable and don’t sit it on top of other electronics
  • If you are picking up any hum – move the turntable a few inches away from your amplifier.


If in any doubt talk to us. We will be glad to advise, to check, to service or maintain your record player and ensure it is working at its best.

Happy listening.